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C

Citations
Prior art identified in the search report produced by a patent examiner.

Community trade mark
A trade mark which has been registered and is valid in the entire European Union.

Copyright
An automatic right allowing the originator of a work of art to control the copying of the original work by others.

E

European patent application
A single patent which, if accepted, is treated as a bundle of separate national patents.

European Patent Convention (EPC)
The international convention governing the application for, processing of and granting of a European patent.

European Patent Office (EPO)
Set up after the signing of the European Patent Convention in 1973, the EPO examine applications and grant European patents for up to 40 countries.

I

In force
A patent which has been granted and is being kept in working order as the renewal fees are being paid every year.

Infringement
Occurs when the rights of the patentee are breached. A person infringes a UK patent if, while it is in force they do, without consent, any of the following: a) make, offer to dispose, use, import or keep a patented product; b) use or offer to use a patented process in the UK where it is known or would be obvious that it would infringe to do so; c) offer to dispose, use, import or keep any product obtained directly in a patented process.

Intellectual property
A general term for property rights which are the result of mental effort. Patents, trade marks, registered designs and copyright are the main intellectual property rights.

Intellectual Property Office (IPO) 
The official government body in the UK responsible for granting intellectual property rights.

IPReg
The Intellectual Property Regulation Board (IPReg) regulates all patent and trade mark attorneys in the profession.

IPReg set the education and training requirements for qualification and a code of conduct for the professions. They also handle complaints of professional misconduct against attorneys.

L

Lapsed
A patent application that has been granted but the renewal fees have not been paid. The patent is no longer in force.

P

Patent Co-operation Treaty (PCT)
A system through which a single patent application can be filed for a number of different PCT countries at once.

Patentee 
A person or organisation that obtains or holds a patent for something.

R

Registered design 
A design registered with the Intellectual Property Office under the Registered Designs Act.  This protects the look of an article but not the way it works.

Registered trade mark
A name or symbol used to show that a product is made by a particular company, legally registered so no other company can use it.

Restoration 
If a patent has lapsed due to non-payment of renewal fees it can be restored back into force if fees are paid and a request of restorations is submitted to the patent office with an explanation of why the fees were not paid.

Revocation
When a patent, registered design or trade mark is challenged during legal proceedings and officially cancelled or nullified as if it never took place.

T

Technical contribution 
An improvement in an area of technology which is patentable.

The Patent Box
Enables companies in the UK to benefit from a lower rate of Corporation Tax (10%) to profits earned after April 1 2013 from its patented inventions.

U

Unregistered design
Automatic protection of the three-dimensional shape of a new design for ten years from the date the product is first marketed. Also known as design right.

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